Promessas Provisórias (Poemas) (Portuguese Edition)
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Rome sent numerous legions and its best generals to Lusitania to quell the rebellion, but to no avail — the Lusitanians kept conquering territory. The Roman leaders decided to change their strategy. They bribed Viriathus's ambassador to kill his own leader. Viriathus was assassinated, and the resistance was soon over. Rome installed a colonial regime. During this period, Lusitania grew in prosperity and many of modern day Portugal's cities and towns were founded.
The complete Romanization of Portugal, intensified during the rule of Augustus, took three centuries and was stronger in Southern Portugal, most of which were administrative dependencies of the Roman city of Pax Julia, currently known as Beja. Augustus renamed it Pax Augusta, but the early name prevailed. In 27 BC, Lusitania gained the status of Roman province. Later, a northern province of Lusitania was formed, known as Gallaecia, with capital in Bracara Augusta, today's Braga. Numerous Roman sites are scattered around present-day Portugal, some urban remains are quite large, like Conimbriga and Mirobriga.
Several works of engineering, such as baths, temples, bridges, roads, circus, theatres and layman's homes are preserved throughout the country. Coins, some of which coined in Portuguese land, sarcophagus and ceramics are numerous. Contemporary historians include Paulus Orosius c. In the early 5th century, Germanic tribes invaded the peninsula, namely the Suevi, the Vandals Silingi and Hasdingi and their allies, the Sarmatian Alans.
Only the kingdom of the Suevi Quadi and Marcomanni endured after the arrival of another wave of Germanic invaders, the Visigoths, who conquered all of the Iberian Peninsula and expelled or partially integrated the Vandals and the Alans. The Visigoths eventually conquered the Suevi kingdom and its capital city Bracara in — The Germanic tribe of the Buri also accompanied the Suevi in their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and colonization of Gallaecia modern northern Portugal and Galicia. Many of the ousted Gothic nobles took refuge in the unconquered north Asturian highlands. From there they aimed to reconquer their lands from the Moors: this war of reconquest is known in Portuguese and Spanish as the Reconquista.
VEREDAS Revista da Associação Internacional de Lusitanistas
The county was then known as Portucale i. Because of feudal power struggles, Portuguese and Galician nobles rebelled. Its territories consisting largely of mountain, moorland and forest were bounded on the north by the Minho, on the south by the Mondego River. At the end of the 11th century, the Burgundian knight Henry became count of Portugal and defended his independence, merging the County of Portucale and the County of Coimbra.
Henry died without achieving his aims. His son, Afonso Henriques, took control of the county. The city of Braga, the unofficial Catholic centre of the Iberian Peninsula, faced new competition from other regions. Lords of the cities of Coimbra and Porto then Portucale with Braga's clergy demanded the independence of the renewed county.
Afonso proclaimed himself first Prince of Portugal and in the first King of Portugal. By , with the assistance of a representative of the Holy See at the conference of Zamora, Portugal was formally recognized as independent, with the prince recognized as Dux Portucalensis. In Afonso I was declared, by the Pope, as king. Later, when Portugal was already officially independent, he ruled from Coimbra.
In the capital shifted to Lisbon. The border with Spain has remained almost unchanged since the 13th century. The Treaty of Windsor created an alliance between Portugal and England that remains in effect to this day. Since early times, fishing and overseas commerce have been the main economic activities. Henry the Navigator's interest in exploration together with some technological developments in navigation made Portugal's expansion possible and led to great advances in geographic, mathematical, scientific knowledge and technology, more specifically naval technology.
The disputed discovery of Australia is not shown. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal was a leading European power, ranking with England, France and Spain in terms of economic, political, and cultural influence. Though not predominant in European affairs, Portugal did have an extensive colonial trading empire throughout the world backed by a powerful thalassocracy. Uninhabited Madeira Island was colonized by the Portuguese in A Portuguese expedition may have attempted to colonize the Canary Islands as early as , but Castile objected to any claim by the Portuguese to the Canary Islands.
Castile began its conquest of the Canaries in Castile expelled the last Portuguese from the Canary islands The Canary Islands would eventually be part of the Spanish Empire.
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The trip marked the beginning of the Portuguese exploration of Africa. Before the turn, very little information was known in Europe about what lay around the cape. At the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, those who tried to venture there became lost, which gave birth to legends of sea monsters. Some setbacks occurred: in the Canaries were officially recognized as Castilian by the Pope; earlier they were recognized as Portuguese. Also, in in a military expedition to Tangier, the Portuguese were defeated. However, the Portuguese did not give up their exploratory efforts.
In , on a small island known as Arguim off the coast of Mauritania, an important castle was built, working as a feitoria, a trading post, for commerce with inland Africa. Some years before the first African gold was brought to Portugal, circumventing the Arab caravans that crossed the Sahara. Immediately following Henry's death, there was a lapse of further exploration. Henry's patronage of explorations had shown that profits could be made in trade which followed the exploration of new lands. Accordingly when exploration was commenced again private merchants led the way in attempting to stretch trade routes further down the African coast.
Setting sail aboard the fleet of ships taking the materials and building crews to Elmina on this trip in December was Christopher Columbus. Some historians have claimed that the Portuguese had already performed fairly accurate calculations concerning the size of the world and therefore knew that sailing west to reach the Indies would require a far longer journey than navigating to the east. However, this continues to be debated. Thus began a long-lasting dispute which eventually resulted in the signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas with Spain in Map of Brazil issued by the Portuguese explorers in Indeed the name of the cape stems from this promise of rich trade with the east.
In , the King of Bemobi gave his realms to the Portuguese king and became Christian. Vasco da Gama sailed for India, and arrived at Calicut on 20 May , returning in glory to Portugal the next year.
On April 22, , they caught sight of land in the distance. This was the coast of what would later become the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Trade with the east had effectively been cut off since the fall of Constantinople in Accordingly, Cabral turned from exploring the coasts of the new land of Brazil and sailed to the southeast back across the Atlantic and around the Cape of Good Hope. Cabral reached Sofala on the east coast of Africa in July No longer would the Islamic occupation of Constantinople form a barrier between Europe and the east.
Ten years later in , Afonso de Albuquerque after attempting and failing to capture and occupy Zamorin's Calicut militarily, conquered Goa on the west coast of India. In , Francisco de Almeida was engaged to improve the Portuguese trade with the far east. Accordingly, he sailed to East Africa. Several small Islamic states along the coast of Mozambique, Kilwa, Brava and Mombasa were destroyed or became subjects or allies of Portugal. The two million Portuguese people ruled a vast empire with many millions of inhabitants in the Americas, Africa, the Middle East and Asia.
From , the Portuguese had reached China and Japan.
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Hormuz, in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Afonso de Albuquerque in , who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia. In , a force under Antonio Correia conquered Bahrain ushering in a period of almost 80 years of Portuguese rule of the Persian Gulf archipelago for further information see Bahrain as a Portuguese dominion. East of Malacca Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam now Thailand in , and dispatched to the Moluccas two expeditions , , which founded the Portuguese dominion in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Japan, accidentally reached by three Portuguese traders in , soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries. In one of the ships in the expedition that Ferdinand Magellan organized in the Spanish service completed the first voyage around the world. By the end of the 15th century, Portugal expelled some local Jews, along with those refugees that came from Castile and Aragon after In addition, many Jews were forcibly converted to Catholicism and remained as Conversos.
Many Jews remained secretly Jewish, in danger of persecution by the Portuguese Inquisition. In , 3, "New Christians" were massacred in Lisbon. The late king's elderly granduncle, Cardinal Henry, became king. The Spanish and Portuguese Empires came under a single rule. This did not, however, end resistance to Spanish rule. The Prior of Crato held out in the Azores until , and continued to actively seek to recover the throne until his death in Impostors claimed to be King Sebastian in , , and After the 16th century, Portugal gradually saw its wealth decreasing.
Portugal was officially an autonomous state, but, in actuality, the country was under the rule of the Spanish from to England had been an ally of Portugal since the Treaty of Windsor in War between Spain and England led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz. In , the Dutch seized Salvador, the capital of Brazil. The Dutch intrusion into Brazil was long lasting and troublesome to Portugal.
This was reversed, beginning with a major Spanish-Portuguese military operation in This laid the foundations for the recovery of remaining Dutch controlled areas.
A Frequency Dictionary of Portuguese
The other smaller, less developed areas were recovered in stages and relieved of Dutch piracy in the next two decades by local resistance and Portuguese expeditions. After the dissolution of the Iberian Union in , Portugal would reestablish its authority over some lost territories of the Portuguese Empire.
It was even proposed to move the Spanish capital to Lisbon. Because of this, as well as the general strain on the finances of the Spanish throne as a result of the Thirty Years War, on 1 December , the Duke of Braganza, one of the great native noblemen and a descendant of King Manuel I, was proclaimed king as John IV, and a war of independence against Spain was launched.
Ceuta governors did not accept the new king; they maintained their allegiance to Spain. Although Portugal had substantially attained its independence in , the Spanish continued to try to reassert their control for the next twenty-eight years, only accepting Portuguese independence in In the 17th century the Portuguese emigrated in large numbers to Brazil. By , John V prohibited emigration, since Portugal had lost a sizable fraction of its population. Brazil was elevated to a vice-kingdom. This copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor.
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We bury the dead and feed the living. The buildings and big squares of the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon still remain as one of Lisbon's tourist attractions: They represent the world's first quake-proof buildings. Joseph refused to accept this and protested that his alliance with Britain was no threat. In spring Spanish troops invaded Portugal from the north as far as the Douro, while a second column captured Almeida and threatened to advance on Lisbon.
British intervention in the Peninsular War restored Portuguese independence, the last French troops being expelled in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, was the Portuguese capital between and In constitutionalist insurrections took place at Oporto 24 August and Lisbon 15 September.